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Zygomycota characteristics

The zygomycota are usually fast growing fungi characterized by primitive coenocytic (mostly aseptate) hyphae. Asexual spores include chlamydoconidia, conidia and sporangiospores contained in sporangia borne on simple or branched sporangiophores. Sexual reproduction is isogamous producing a thick-walled sexual resting spore called a zygospore Identify characteristics and examples of fungi in the phylum Zygomycota The zygomycetes are a relatively small group of fungi belonging to the Phylum Zygomycota. They include the familiar bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer, which rapidly propagates on the surfaces of breads, fruits, and vegetables The Zygomycota, or conjugation fungi, include molds, such as those that invade breads and other food products. The identifying characteristics of the Zygomycota are the formation of a zygospore during sexual reproduction and the lack of hyphal cell walls except in reproductive structures. Click to see full answer Zygomycota It is a paraphyletic group that groups more than 1,300 species of fungi with different evolutionary origins. These have the common characteristic of producing zygospores, which are thick-walled, hard-walled zygotes, through which sexual reproduction occurs The identifying characteristics of the Zygomycota are the formation of a zygospore during sexual reproduction and the lack of hyphal cell walls except in reproductive structures. Many (~100 species) are known plant root symbionts

Zygomycota Mycology Onlin

  1. The Zygomycota are terrestrial fungi with a well-developed, coenocytic, haploid mycelium. The thallus is haploid, and chitin and chitosan are significant constituents of the hyphal cell wall. Asexual reproduction in the zygomycetes results in nonmotile spores called sporangiospores
  2. The Division Zygomycota involves a gathering of parasites which are portrayed by the accompanying highlights: 1. Majority of these organisms are mycelial and normally need cross dividers, for example coenocytic (non-septate), so all the cores are available inside a typical cytoplasm, yet in certain requests the presence of septa can be seen. 2
  3. Introduction to Zygomycetes: The class zygomycetes derives its name from the thick-walled resting spores, the zygospores formed as a result of the complete fusion of the protoplasts of two equal or unequal gametangia. It comprises 450 species which are grouped under 70 genera. They all are terrestrial molds which show a wide range in their habit
  4. Zygomycetes are a unique form of fungi because they possess the ability to reproduce both sexually, by creating zygospores, and asexually. Most fungi cannot sexually reproduce. Zygospores are created through the fusion of two other spores. Asexual reproduction of this fungi occurs via the spread of spores by animals or in the wind
  5. ant, while asexual reproduction makes use of aplanospores
  6. The zygomycetes are a relatively small group of fungi belonging to the Phylum Zygomycota. They include the familiar bread mold, Rhizopus stolonifer, which rapidly propagates on the surfaces of breads, fruits, and vegetables. Most species are saprobes, living off decaying organic material; a few are parasites, particularly of insects
  7. Most zygomycota are saprobes, while a few species are parasites. Zygomycota usually reproduce asexually by producing sporangiospores. Zygomycota reproduce sexually when environmental conditions become unfavorable. To reproduce sexually, two opposing mating strains must fuse or conjugate, thereby, sharing genetic content and creating zygospores

Zygomycota: The Conjugated Fungi Biology for Majors I

Zygomycota The Zygomycota are terrestrial fungi with a well-developed, coenocytic, haploid mycelium. The thallus is haploid, and chitin and chitosan are significant constituents of the hyphal cell wall. Asexual reproduction in the zygomycetes results in nonmotile spores called sporangiospores Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a former division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi.The members are now part of two phyla the Mucoromycota and Zoopagomycota. Approximately 1060 species are known. They are mostly terrestrial in habitat, living in soil or on decaying plant or animal material

Division: Zygomycota The Zygomycota is thought to be the most primitive of the terrestrial fungi. This division has coenocytic mycelium, and asexual spores (= sporangiospores) that are produced in sporangia borne on stalks (= sporangiophores). These characteristics are shared with the divisions of flagellated fungi that were just studied Zygomycota characteristics. 1) form coenocytic hyphae (containing numerous haploid nuclei) 2) sexual reproduction (requires compatible 'heterothallic', produce zygosporangium containing zygospores - thick, black, rough surface btwn hyphae branching) Zygomycota examples. Rhizopus stolonife ZYGOMYCOTA. The Zygomycota take their name from their method of sexual reproduction, involving the production of conjugating gametangia, leading to the production of zygosporangia and zygospores. This is a relatively simple kind of reproduction found in a variety of filamentous organisms. Asexual reproduction in this group can be far more.

Sample Examinations The Zygomycota includes a group of organisms that show a tremendous variation in structure. There is some question as to whether these are advanced organisms that have degenerated, or whether they are truly primitive. Subclasses are Monoflagellatae, Biflagellatae and Aflagellatae. It is suspected that these three groups might have evolved independently The characteristics of Zygomycota - Zygomycetes is a relatively small group in the mushroom kingdom and belongs to the Zygomycota Phylum. Zygomycetes include mushroom bread, Rhizopus stolonifer, which rapidly propagates on the surface of bread, fruits, and vegetables Rhizopus oryzae. RG-2 organism. Morphological Description: Colonies are very fast growing, about 5-8 mm high, with some tendency to collapse, white cottony at first becoming brownish grey to blackish-grey depending on the amount of sporulation. Sporangiophores up to 1500 µm in length and 18 µm in width, smooth-walled, non-septate, simple or. Sign In. Details. Zygomycota characteristics, systematic, feeding, habitat. 3129. 920. Anthony Golden. Zygomycota It is a paraphyletic group that groups more than 1,300 species of fungi with different evolutionary origins. These have the common characteristic of producing zygospores, which are thick-walled, hard-walled zygotes, through which sexual reproduction.

What are the characteristics of zygomycetes

Many lichen are the result of Ascomycota fungi and algae forming a mutualistic relationship Or some have a mutualistic relationship with algae to form lichen. The algae produce food and the.. Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the sexual reproduction of zygomycetes. Zygomycetes reproduce sexually via modified conjugation to produce a zygospore within a zygosporangium. Zygosporangia are generally warty and darkly pigmented The Glomeromycota are unusual and poorly understood organisms. Fungi from this division rarely produce easily visible structures and cannot be grown without a plant host, so investigating them is very difficult. Glomeromycotan fungi are some of the most important fungi on Earth because they form arbuscular mycorrhizas, which provide essential nutrients to the vast majority of terrestrial plants. Characteristics, Nutrition and Significance. Ascomycota has been shown to be the largest phylum of fungi, as compared to the other phyla (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Deuteromycota), with well over 33,000 species identified and named while many others are yet to be described. This phylum is also morphologically diverse with.

Zygomycota: Characteristics, Systematics, Feeding, Habitat

The Zygomycota video is a brief introduction to the fungal phylum. It includes key characteristics associated with the phylum members an a detailed explanati.. Zygomycota. The Zygomycota are terrestrial fungi with a well-developed, coenocytic, haploid mycelium. The thallus is haploid, and chitin and chitosan are significant constituents of the hyphal cell wall. Asexual reproduction in the zygomycetes results in nonmotile spores called sporangiospores. Sexual spores, or zygospores, are produced when. The terms zygomycota and zygomycetes are therefore only used informally to reference this diverse group of fungi. The distinctive characteristic of the zygomycetes is their method of sexual reproduction (if a sexual stage exists). Their hyphae are almost always haploid. When two compatible (and haploid) hyphae meet they form. Phylum: Zygomycota This phylum represents the first group of terrestrial fungi, but still has some characteristics in common with the flagellate fungi: Mycelium is coenocytic. Although asexual spores are not motile, they are still produced in a sporangium. Above characteristics not found in other terrestrial fungi Phylum: Zygomycota

Fungi: Zygomycota: The Conjugation Fungi SparkNote

BiodiversityKingdom Fungi

Which of the following are characteristics of Zygomycota? Check all that apply. -lack reproduction phase-spores produced in basidia-spores produced in zygosporangia-important in the food industry-important in the fermentation process-can cause disease to plants-can cause disease to animal Zygomycetes is a diverse fungal class of phylum Zygomycota. They are ubiquitous environmental fungi. Moreover, the zygomycetes hyphae are coenocytic. However, during the gamete formation, septa can be seen. They belong to Kingdom fungi hence they are true fungi. Their cell wall contains chitosan ZYGOMYCOTA. The Zygomycota take their name from their method of sexual reproduction, involving the production of conjugating gametangia, leading to the production of zygosporangia and zygospores. This is a relatively simple kind of reproduction found in a variety of filamentous organisms. Asexual reproduction in this group can be far more. Forming commensalism relationships with arthropods, it lives in their guts and feeds on the unused nutrients. Zygomycota is also called conjugation fungi because the form of sexual reproduction exhibited by this phylum of fungi is called conjugation. The two opposing mating strains fuse or conjugate, thus sharing genes, to create zygospores

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FUNGI The division Zygomycota contains the fungi called Zygomycetes. These are lower fungi that have non-septate Hyphae and produce endogenous asexual spores, called Sporangiospores, contained within swollen sac-like structures called Sporangia CHARACTERISTICS OF ZYGOMYCOTA The unique character (synapomorphy) of the Zygomycota is the zygospore. Zygospores are formed within a zygosporangium after the fusion of specialized hyphae called gametangia during the sexual cycle. A single zygospore is formed per zygosporangium. Most Zygomycota are thought to have a zygotic or haplontic life cycle A zygomycete called Harpellalesattaches itself to the back of the Chilean blackfly and feeds on nutrients the blackfly cannot utilize. 18. Some zygomycetes are parasites to plants, animals, amoebas and other fungi and often causes disease outbreaks. For example, the sporangium of Mucorales specializes on infecting other fungi such as mushrooms.

Zygomycetes - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Following are the important characteristics of fungi: Fungi are eukaryotic, non-vascular, non-motile and heterotrophic organisms. They may be unicellular or filamentous. They reproduce by means of spores. Fungi exhibit the phenomenon of alternation of generation. Fungi lack chlorophyll and hence cannot perform photosynthesis Question: Have It Required Information 4 Looking At The Fungi, Which Characteristics Would You Expect To See In The Black Bread Meld Rhizopus Stoneta Member Of The Zygomycota? Choose All That Apply Part 4 Of 7 Check Al That Apply Points Flech Chitin Cell Wal Prix Heteres Dikaryotic Fruiting Bodies Lors Of Flagella Next 4 ME < Prey 5 6 Type Here To Sech Help Seve.

Morphological characteristics of oomycetes. One of the most distinguishing characteristics is the production of zoospores produced in sporangia. The anterior flagellum of a zoospore is a tinsel type, while the posterior flagellum is a whiplash type; both are typically attached in a ventral groove (Figure 2). Although wall-less, zoospores retain. Zygomycota (Zygote forming fungi): Sexual spore called Zygospore is formed by the fusion of two similar cells. Asexual reproduction occurs by sporangiospore; Hypahe are generally aseptate. Examples: Rhizopus, Mucor, Basidiobolus, Conidiobolus; Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi): These fungi are also known as fungi imperfecti. No sexual stage is. Correct answers: 3 question: Which of the following are characteristics of Zygomycota? Check all that apply. B lack reproduction phase spores produced in basidia spores produced in zygosporangia important in the food industry important in the fermentation process can cause disease to plants can cause disease to animal Zygomycota produces zygospores, which germinate into new hyphae.The production of zygospores is a distinct characteristic of members of division Zygomycota prompted by the release of certain. General MycologyPLP 427/527. Zygomycota and Glomeromycota - Study Questions. 1. Explain why the Zygomycota are considered to be evolutionarily intermediate between the lower fungi we have previously considered, and the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Deuteromycota. a

The isolated zygomycota were identified using phenotypic characteristics combined with DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA and the D1/D2 nuclear ribosomal large subunit. Of 364 zygomycota strains, 108 were identified as Mucor circinelloides, 96 as M. racemosus, 60 as Lichtheimia ramosa, 22 as Rhizopus. Correct answers: 1 question: Which of the following are characteristics of zygomycota? check all that apply. -lack reproduction phase -spores produced in basidia -spores produced in zygosporangia -important in the food industry -important in the fermentation process -can cause disease to plants -can cause disease to animal Chytridiomycota, a phylum of fungi (kingdom Fungi) distinguished by having zoospores (motile cells) with a single, posterior, whiplash structure (flagellum). Species are microscopic in size, and most are found in freshwater or wet soils. Most are parasites of algae and animals or live on organic debris (as saprobes). A few species in the order Chytridiales cause plant disease, and one species. Characteristics of mushrooms. The fungi constitute an entire kingdom, whose general characteristics can be summarized as follows: They are eukaryotic living beings, evolutionarily closer to animals than to plants.; They lack mobility and senses, like plants, but unlike them, they do not have autotrophic nutrition (photosynthesis or chemosynthesis), but rather consume available organic matter.

Division Zygomycota Division Zygomycota Main characteristics Somatic stage Coenocytic hyphae Haploid Cell wall are mainly chitin, chitosan and polyglucosamine Spindle | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view. Zygomycota zygote fungi - Hyphae- threadlike filaments which make up fungi. Mycellium-a mass of hyphae Fungal Diversity BIOL 1407 Fungal Classification Traditionally based on: Sexual spore-producing structures Hyphal characteristics Molecular evidence Deuteromycota ≠ Clade Imperfect Fungi In past, could not classify No sexual structures produced Molecular data should do away with this informal group Chytridiomycota Chytrids Basal group Unicellular to simple mycelium-forming Photo Credit of.

Fungi & Lichens - Lab 14

Browse 82 zygomycetes stock photos and images available, or search for ascomycetes or basidiomycetes to find more great stock photos and pictures. Zygomycete. black bread mold. rhizopus stolonifer, zygospore & zygosporangium, 50x at 35mm. sexual reproduction between different matiing types. kingdom fungi, phylum zygomycota. - zygomycetes stock. Rhizopus. Rhizopus is a type of fungus that belongs to the class Zygomycetes, as its species produce zygospore in the sexual reproductive phase. They are also called bread, black or pin mould. These can reproduce by vegetative, asexual and sexual methods through fragmentation, sporangiospores and zygospores formation, respectively

Characteristics Features of Phylum Zygomycota Class

Zygomycetes: Features and Classification Fung

BIO 302 Study Guide (2012-13 Brown) - Instructor Brown at

The phylum Zygomycota comprises the first group of fungi which lacks any motile stage. Asexual reproduction is by spores which are called aplanospores because they are non- Characteristics of the class are the same as those of the division. The class contains 6 orders, 29 families, 120 genera, approximately 800 species Phylum Zygomycota is a phylum of Kingdom Fungi.The defining characteristics of this phylum are that they are microscopic and usually asexual. The spores used for reproduction are called sporangiospores, and differ from conidia of Phlyas Ascomycota and Basidomycota.An example of on organism that is classified under Phylum Zygomycota is Rhizopus stolonifer Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a phylum of fungi. The name comes from zygosporangia, where resistant spherical spores are formed during sexual reproduction. Approximately 1060 species are known The Zygomycota may be one of the most diverse and the least-studied of the fungal phyla, and as presently classified, appears to be polyphyletic. Zygomycota is one of the four divisions of the Fungi accepted by Barr (1992), and consists of Trichomycetes and Zygomycetes. Zygomycetes are saprobes or haustorial or nonhaustorial parasites of. (described by Ehrenberg ex Corda in 1838) Taxonomic classification Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Zygomycota Order: Mucorales Family: Mucoraceae Genus: Rhizopus Description and Natural Habitats Rhizopus is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus found in soil, decaying fruit and vegetables, animal feces, and old bread. While Rhizopus spp. are common contaminants, they are also occasional causes of serious.

Examples of Zygomycete

Answers: 2 on a question: Which of the following are characteristics of Zygomycota? Check all that apply. 1.lack reproduction phase 2. spores produced in basidia 3.spores produced in zygosporangia 4.important in the food industry 5.important in the fermentation process 6.can cause disease to plants 7.can cause disease to animal Important characteristics are growth temperature (growth or no growth at 36 C and 45 C) and the length of the sporangiophores (above or below 1 mm). Size of the sporangia and sporangiospores and the ornamentation of the latter structures are also key characters characteristics, and medical importance of each mold. Based on this report, of the approximately 100,000 named fungal species, 500 are commonly Zygomycota Zygomycetes Mucorales Mucoraceae Rhizopus Mucor Entomorphthorales Ancylistaceae Conidiobolus Basidiobolaceae Basidiobolus

Zygomycota - microbewik

Zygomycota (Greek zygon = yoke, bond); example: Rhizopus stolonifer or black bread mold Glomeromycota (Greek glomus = ball shapped mass) or soil fungi are connected to roots of some plants Ascomycota (Greek askos = sac) or sac fungi; examples: Saccharomyces cerevisiae or baker's yeast, colored molds on foods, Penicillium , morels, truffles. Phylum Zygomycota, which can grow on decaying matter and human food sources (e.g., bread mold) Phylum Ascomycota, which can be pathogenic and cause disease (e.g., skin infections like ringworm and jock itch, nail bed infection, and yeast infection or Candida albicans Definition of zygomycota in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of zygomycota. What does zygomycota mean? Information and translations of zygomycota in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web

Lab Practical - Biology 121 with Wiles at SyracusePPT - Phylum:ascomycota PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3203064

24.2: Classifications of Fungi - Biology LibreText

Abstract. Molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed the phylum Zygomycota to be polyphyletic, and the taxa conventionally classified in Zygomycota are now distributed among the new phylum Glomeromycota and 4 subphyla incertae sedis (uncertain placement). Because the nomenclature of the disease zygomycosis was based on the phylum Zygomycota (Zygomycetes) in which the etiologic agents had been. Mucor is a fungi that belongs to the class Zygomycetes. These are mostly saprophytic in nature and some are coprophilous. These are very fast growing fungi having branched and coenocytic hyphal network called mycelium Phylum Zygomycota = the Bread Molds. Rhizopus - black bread mold. Oomycota = the Water Molds. Water mold, potato blight, mildew. Phylum Ascomycota = the Sac Fungi. Yeast, morels, truffles. Phylum Basidiomycota = the Club Fungi. Mushrooms, puffballs, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts, toadstools. Phylum Deuteromycota = the Fungi Imperfecti. Slide 1 Rhizopus Stolonifer Black Bread Mold Reproduction. Solved Label The Following Diagram To Describe The Life C. Zygomycota Ppt Video Online Download. Fungi Microbiology. Zygomycota Phycomycetes Monoflagellatae. Zygomycota Wikipedia. Sexual Reproduction In Mucor Or Rhizopus Sexual Life Cycle Of Mucor Or Rhizopus Members of the phylum Ascomycota are known as ascomycetes. Ascomycota is the largest phylum of the kingdom fungi and has around 64000 species. They come under the sub-kingdom Dikarya (presence of dikaryon). They produce sexual non-motile spores known as ascospores. They are produced in a sac-like structure known as an ascus

24.3B: Zygomycota - The Conjugated Fungi - Biology LibreText

(described by Micheli ex Saint-Amans in 1821) Taxonomic classification Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Zygomycota Order: Mucorales Family: Mucoraceae Genus: Mucor Description and Natural Habitats Mucor is a filamentous fungus found in soil, plants, decaying fruits and vegetables. As well as being ubiquitous in nature and a common laboratory contaminant, Mucor spp. may cause infections in man, frogs. One of the most unique characteristics of zygomycetes is the ability to reproduce either sexually by the combination of two spores, or asexually, like most other fungi. This method of reproduction can depend on a number of factors, including host and food supply, water conditions, and more

Zygomycota - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Phylum Zygomycota. This phylum contains approximately 900 identified species divided amongst two ecologically distinct classes, Zygomycetes and Trichomycetes (White et al. 2006). Hibbett et al. (2007) indicate the phylum is polyphyletic and further work is needed to clarify relationships of fungi traditionally considered in Zygomycota Zygomycota (Zygomycotina) a group of FUNGI that form ZYGOSPORES when SEXUAL REPRODUCTION by conjugation takes place. Certain HYPHAE, called gametangia, grow towards each other and conjugate, resulting in the formation of zygospores. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION generally involves the production of sporangiospores in a SPORANGIUM or sporangium-like structure. The Zygomycota are sometimes called the. Cultural characteristics :-. Yeast grown in watery media may result in the formation of residue a ring, a pellicle. Pellicle formation on a watery medium is a product associated with oxygen demand of yeast. Growth on solid media may be either butyrous, friable, pigmented. Lipomyces shows characteristics of mucoid growth The basidiomycotes are the rusts, smuts, gilled mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, and club, shelf or coral fungi. They are one of the two major divisions of Fungi, the other being the Ascomycota.Definitive Basidiomycote fossils are known from the Late Devonian, although there has been a recent report of a possible Early Devonian lichen incorporating a probable basidiomycote fungus

Zygomycota - Wikipedi

Files Size Format View; Zygomycota_sexual_reproduction_diagrams.jpg: 185.2Kb: JPEG imag Chytrids have a life cycle much like many of the other fungi's. They have both sexual and asexual abilities as is shown in this diagram. For asexual reproduction the sporangia releases zoospores that germinate into a sporophyte Vorticella Characteristics, Structure, Reproduction and Habitat Overview: What is Vorticella? Vorticella is a protozoa (protist) that belongs to the Phylum Ciliophora. As such, they are eukaryotic ciliates that can be found in such habitats as fresh and salty water bodies among others.. According to studies, Vorticella is the largest genus of sessile peritrich ciliates with over 100 identified. Zygomycota Introduction There are few remedies form Zygomycota known in homeopathy. The best known are Mucuor mucedo and Rhizopus nigricans. Taxonomy Zygomycota is an old clade with some typical characteristics. DNA analysis came to the conclusion that the Zygomycota is not monophyletic. Proposal classificatio

Botany 201 Laboratory, Zygomycot

Some examples of fungi classified within the group Zygomycota are black bread mold and Rhizopus oligosporus, which is used to produce tempeh. Zygomycetes are a group of mostly microscopic fungi that differ from other fungi in that they reproduce using zygospores. Zygomycetes are very diverse, but few are encountered by humans on an everyday. The five true phyla of fungi are the Chytridiomycota (Chytrids), the Zygomycota (conjugated fungi), the Ascomycota (sac fungi), the Basidiomycota (club fungi) and the recently described Phylum Glomeromycota. The Deuteromycota is an informal group of unrelated fungi that all share a common character - they use strictly asexual reproduction De Anza College - Tops in Transfe Zygomycota (bread molds): Members of the subdivision Zygomycota have coenocytic hyphae. Asexual reproduction is via sporangiospores, which can be released from the sporangium and carried by air currents. When the spores reach an appropriate substrate, they germinate to produce new hyphae. Bread molds do not usually cause human disease Which of the following are characteristics of Ascomycota? Check all that apply. flagellated spores spores produced in the ascus lack reproduction phase important in the food industry important in the digestion of animals can cause disease in plants can cause disease in animals 2 See answer

These include moulds invading food products. The distinguishing characteristic of these is the production of zygospores during sexual reproduction and the lack of hyphal cell walls except in reproductive structures. The mycelia of Zygomycota are divided into three types of hyphae. The rhizoids function in food absorption and reach below the. Rhizopus spp are saprophytic fungi found on plants and it is parasitic on animals. They are multicellular fungi, with about 8 species. They are responsible for causing an opportunistic infection known as invasive mucormycosis in humans and animals. Some species are used for industrial importance such as Rhizopus stolonifer which caused bread mold Of the roughly 900 described species in the Zygomycota, most are terrestrial and exist as saprobes in soil, on decaying plant material or on animal dung (Fig. 10). Many common bread molds (e.g., Rhizopus stolonifer) are zygomycetes. Morphologically, they have coenocytic hyphae, with septa formed only in association with reproductive structures Zygomycete definition, any of a wide variety of common fungi constituting the phylum Zygomycota of the kingdom Fungi (or the class Zygomycetes of the kingdom Plantae), in which sexual reproduction is by the formation of zygospores. See more These conidial characteristics are the basis for the artificial classification. Members of this group are mostly saprobes, but some are parasitic on plants and animals, including man. Deuteromycetes are: 1. Ascomycetes with no sexual stage. Exceptions: Vegetative stage is a plasmodiu Zygomycota . The hyphae are not divided and spores are produced inside sporangia , such as Bread mould fungus ( Rhizopus nigricans ) which causes the black putrefaction on bread and an enzyme used in cheese industry is extracted from it . General characteristics of kingdom Animalia ( Phylum : sponges , Cnidaria , Platyhelminthes , Nematoda.